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A Concise Introduction to Logic: Chapter 1 Basic Concepts flashcards |
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  • Logic

    The organized body of knowledge, or science, that evaluates arguments (pg. 1).

    Argument

    A group of statements, one or more of which (the premises) are claimed to provide support for, or reasons to believe, one of the others (the conclusion) (pg. 1).

    Statement

    A sentence that is either true or false--in other words, typically a declarative sentence or a sentence component that could stand as a declarative sentence (pg. 2).

    Truth Values

    The attribute by which a statement is either true or false (pg. 2).

    Premises

    The statements that set forth the reasons or evidence (pg. 2).

    Conclusion

    The statement that the evidence is claimed to support or imply (pg.2).

    Conclusion Indicators

    Words that provide clues to identifying a conclusion: therefore, thus, consequently, accordingly, so, hence, we may conclude, we may infer, implies that... (pg. 3).

    Premise Indicators

    Words that provide clues to identifying a premise: since, for, because, given that (pg. 3).

    Inference

    The reasoning process expressed by an argument (pg. 5). Dr. Anacker's definition: "movement of reasoning from evidence to conclusion"; mental concept/event

    Proposition

    The information content of a statement (pg. 5).

    Syllogistic Logic

    A kind of logic in which the fundamental elements are terms, and arguments are evaluated as good or bad depending on how the terms are arranged in the argument (pg. 5).

    Modal Logic

    A kind of logic that involves such concepts as possibility, necessity, belief, and doubt (pg. 5).

    Expository Passage

    A kind of discourse that begins with a topic sentence followed by one or more sentences that develop the topic sentence (pg. 18-19).

    Illustration

    An expression involving one or more examples that is intended to show what something means or how it is done (pg. 19-20).

    Argument From Example

    An argument that purports to prove something by giving one or more examples (pg. 20).

    Explanation

    An expression that purports to shed light on some event or phenomenon (pg. 20-21). Dr. Anacker's definition: "target statement is known to be True. What is not certain is why it is true. An explanation provides an account (Explanans) for the truth of target statements; richer piece of reasoning than arguments in a deep account."

    Explanandum

    The component of an explanation that describes the event or phenomenon to be explained (pg. 20-21). Dr. Anacker's definition: "thing to be explained."

    Explanans

    The component of an explanation that explains the event or phenomenon indicated by the explanandum (pg. 20-21). Dr. Anacker's definition: "account of why the explanandum is true."

    Conditional Statement

    An "if...then" statement (pg. 22-24).

    Antecedent

    The component of a conditional statement immediately following the word "if" (pg. 22-23).

    Consequent

    The component of a conditional statement immediately following the word "then"; the component of a conditional statement that is not the antecedent (pg. 22-23).

    Sufficient Condition

    The condition represented by the antecedent in a conditional statement (pg. 24).

    Necessary Condition

    The condition represented by the consequent in a conditional statement (pg. 24).

    Deductive Argument

    An argument incorporating the claim that it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true (pg. 33-36).

    Inductive Argument

    An argument incorporating the claim that it is improbable that the conclusion is false given that the premises are true (pg. 33-34).

    Argument Based on Mathematics

    A deductive argument in which the conclusion depends on some purely arithmetic or geometric computation or measurement (pg. 35-36).

    Argument From Definition

    A deductive argument in which the conclusion is claimed to depend merely on the definition of some word or phrase used in the premise or conclusion (pg. 36).

    Categorical Syllogism

    A syllogism in which all three statements are categorical propositions (pg. 36).

    Hypothetical Syllogism

    A syllogism having a conditional statement for one or both of its premises (pg. 36).

    Disjunctive Syllogism

    A syllogism having a disjunctive statement for one or both of its premises (pg. 36).

    Prediction

    An inductive argument that proceeds from knowledge of some event in the relative past to a claim about some other event in the relative future (pg. 37).

    Argument From Analogy

    An inductive argument that depends on the existence of a similarity between two things or states of affairs (pg. 37-38).

    Generalization

    An inductive argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a selected sample to some claim about the whole group (pg. 37-38).

    Argument From Authority

    An inductive argument in which the conclusion rests on a statement made by some presumed authority or witness (pg. 37).

    Argument Based on Signs

    An inductive argument that proceeds from the knowledge of a sign to a claim about the thing or situation that the sign symbolizes (pg. 37-38).

    Causal Inference

    An inductive argument that proceeds from knowledge of a cause to a claim about an effect, or from knowledge of an effect to a claim about a cause (pg. 8).

    Particular Statement

    A proposition/statement that makes a claim about one or more (but not all) members of a class (pg. 39).

    General Statement

    A statement that makes a claim about all the members of a class (pg. 39).

    Valid Deductive Argument

    An argument in which it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true (pg. 45-48).

    Invalid Deductive Argument

    A deductive argument in which it is possible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true (pg. 45-47).

    Sound Argument

    A deductive argument that is valid and has all true premises (pg. 47-48).

    Unsound Argument

    A deductive argument that is invalid, has one or more false premises, or both (pg. 47-48).

    Strong Inductive Argument

    An inductive argument in which it is improbable that the conclusion be false given that the premises are true (pg. 48-53).

    Weak Inductive Argument

    An inductive argument in which the conclusion does not follow probably from the premises even though it is claimed to do so (pg. 48-53).

    Cogent Argument

    An inductive argument that is strong, has all true premises, and meets the total evidence requirement (pg. 52-53).

    Uncogent Argument

    An inductive argument that is weak, has one or more false premises, fails to meet the total evidence requirement, or any combination of these (pg. 52-53).

    Argument Form

    An arrangement of words and letters such that the uniform substitution of terms or statement in place of the letters results in an argument (pg. 59).

    Substitution Instance

    An argument or statement that has the same form as a given argument form or statement form; of an argument form (pg. 59).

    Counterexample Method

    A method for proving invalidity; consists in constructing a substitution instance having true premises and false conclusion (pg. 61).

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